Pre-Socratic philosophers

The pre-Socratic philosophers have many different theories. Some of their theories are still relevant in the contemporary understanding of physics and the universe. Some argue that the universe and everything in it are in constant change/constant reflux. Therefore, with such a claim, everything in the universe may have the opposite despite becoming interconnected. Examples of the theories are Immutable One, Constant Flux, and Atomism by Parmenides, Heraclitus, and Leucippus philosophers. We will discuss each Philosopher’s arguments and their relevance in contemporary understanding of the universe and physics.

Parmenides, in his approaches to questioning beings, conceived them as unchanging. He separated phenomena appearance and essence in his arguments. Parmenides believes that even if the world looks diverse, the essence remains permanent, immutable, and eternal. As a rationalist, he argued for the way of truth and rejected the form of opinion. He argued that for analysis of things, we must imply the existence and permanence of being. As expressed, metaphysics beliefs are essential for scientific research. Physics means non-technical knowledge of philosophy; hence, by studying it, we understand that forces are more critical and responsible for shaping history and ideas. Although the claims by Parmenides have been proven to be inaccurate by current scientific researchers, they still have significance in contemporary science because the theories can be verified through experiments.

Heraclitus is the Philosopher who invented the constant flux theory. He argued that everything is changing, and the only thing that does not change is changing itself (Georgoulas, 2018). He termed the constant universe flux because the universe is not permanent but relatively constant. He believed that there was a guiding force that influenced the beginning of time and that permeated nature. Moreover, he further explains that all things originated from a single idea that continued to grow and spread, which he demonstrated by giving an example of fire. Heraclitus adds that the cosmos is constantly changing, but a pattern seeks to establish a balance. The study of particle physics enables us to understand how it relates to cosmological constants. Several observations have proved how the universe assumes a cosmological constant. In general, the studies provide an opportunity to comprehend the universe’s evolution since the early moments and give us a diverse knowledgeable experience in physics.

Leucippus came up with the Atomism theory, which stated that matter consisted of particles that were moved freely and effortlessly and were void. He named them atoms meaning invisible, in Greek. Most of the information about the universe revolves around the atoms and molecules that are released through radiation (Georgoulas, 2018). Therefore, we need to understand these molecules and atoms’ relevance to understand the universe’s evolution and better relate with it. Thus, the atomic theory has been implied in understanding the laws of physics, which are deducted from the universe’s structure and led to an understanding that nature’s rules are unbreakable, eternal, and all-controlling such as the universe.

From the three Philosophers’ arguments, we understand that the science in the ancient Greeks has contributed to the modern world. The three Philosophers invented the constant flux theory, atomic theory, and approaches to the question of being, which we termed as unchanging. The views of the Philosophers have been significant in the understanding of the universe and physics. The ideas they provided have become the basis of the foundation for modern science. Parmenides, Heraclitus, and Leucippus philosophers’ arguments and viewpoints still have relevance in contemporary understanding of physics and the universe.


Georgoulas, S. (2018). Pre-socratic philosophy. The Origins of Radical Criminology, 137-173.


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