Leadership and Management in Public Health



  1. INTRODUCTION …………………………………….2
  2. CASE STUDY …………………………………….2
  4. DEMOGRAPHICS …………………………………..3



  1. SERVICES ………………………………………4
  2. CAMPAIGNS ……………………………………….4
  3. GROUPS AND EVENTS…………………………….5
  4. Publications ………………………………………5
  5. PARTNERSHIP ……………………………………5
  6. Current health Interventions……………………..5
  7. SUCCESS RATE…………………………………..5-6


  1. Evaluation of health policy………………………6
  2. Proposition of new plan…………………….……6
  3. Objectives of collaboration………………………6
  4. budgeting the intervention……………………….6
  5. Potential results include………………………….6-7
  6. FUTURE EVALUATIONS….……………………….7
  7. REFERENCES ……………..……………………8-9


Type 2 diabetes is a metabolic condition that causes your blood sugar levels to rise. Diabetes can be tough to deal with. Some people can control it well, while others have serious health problems as the disease worsens. Diabetes can be broken down into two groups: People are more likely to be diagnosed with type 1 diabetes when they are young or in their teens. Because the pancreas is hurt, it makes very little insulin or none at all. This is what causes this condition. In type 2 diabetes, the pancreas makes insulin differently than in type 1, where the body’s cells slowly lose the ability to take in and use insulin. Once upon a time, type 2 diabetes was often called “adult-onset diabetes” because it usually shows up in adults. Type 2 diabetes is being found in more people than ever before. Most people with diabetes have type 2 diabetes.

Diabetes is a significant issue in today’s society, with the number of people with diabetes increasing yearly. Diabetes is a set of metabolic illnesses characterised by chronically high blood sugar levels. Diabetes is classified into two types: type 1 diabetes when pancreatic cells do not make enough insulin, and type 2 diabetes, which begins with insulin resistance when cells do not respond correctly to insulin. In the United Kingdom, type 2 diabetes outnumbers type 1 diabetes. Furthermore, there is a significant link between deprivation quintiles and diabetes risk in England. The frequency of both types of diabetes was highest in the most deprived neighbourhoods. In 2019, there were approximately 14 thousand diabetes-related deaths in the United Kingdom.

Case study:-

As demonstrated by broad prosperity England, diabetes is changing into a significant issue among the UK people; as per late assessments, we have picked diabetes as a concerned clinical issue in regards to mainly focusing in the North Yorkshire district among the UK. The rehash and unavoidability of diabetes around North Yorkshire have been on a fundamental level analysed and surveyed. The overall achievement interventions and the controlling methodologies in force are evaluated close by the positive and negatives (Cartwright, R.A., 1993)

Causes of health issues:-

When we eat food with sugar (glucose), our metabolism ensures that all of our organs get enough. For this process to work well, a hormone called insulin is needed. The pancreas makes it. When your blood sugar level goes up after a meal, insulin is released into your blood (Tuomi T. et al., 2014). When insulin is in the body, cells like those in the liver and muscles can take sugar out of the blood. If the body doesn’t have enough insulin, it can’t use the glucose in the bloodstream correctly. This causes the blood sugar level to go up. High blood sugar is called hyperglycemia in medicine. Even though people with type 2 diabetes still make enough insulin, the hormone can no longer affect the body’s internal organs. Doctors use the term “insulin resistance” to describe this condition. This can be fixed by having the pancreas make a little more insulin for a short time. But it can’t keep up after a while, and blood sugar levels start to rise (Tuomi T. et al. 2014).”


According to the (International Diabetes Federation 2009), diabetes affected 285 million people in 2010 and is anticipated to impact 438 million people by 2030. (IDF). According to the International Diabetes Federation (IDF), India, China, the United States, Russia, and Brazil had the most significant number of diabetics in 2010. According to the IDF, the five countries with the highest adult diabetes prevalence in 2010 were Nauru, the United Arab Emirates, Saudi Arabia, Mauritius, and Bahrain. Diabetes is more common in poor and middle-income countries.

Diabetes affects 2.6 million people in the United Kingdom (2009). By 2025, the UK will have more than four million diabetics. One hundred forty-five thousand people were diagnosed with diabetes in the United Kingdom in 2008. To put this in context, it is larger than the population of Middlesbrough (Department of health 2009).

How diabetes has been dealt with in recent years:-

Section 2:- Local aid and services are available.

Depending on where you live, various courses are available to help with the self-management of type 1 and type 2 diabetes.

Brief intervention in type 1 diabetes, education for self-efficacy (BITES) – a three-day advanced self-management course for patients on multiple injection insulin regimes; Dose adjustment for normal eating (DAFNE) courses; and carbohydrate counting workshop – this workshop equips patients on numerous injection insulin regime with the skills needed to calculate the number of carbohydrates in their diet and adjust their insulin regime accordingly.

Type 2 diabetes

The NHS Diabetes Prevention Programme (NHS DPP) identifies people at high risk of developing diabetes and refers them to a behaviour-change programme. The NHS DPP is a partnership of NHS England, Public Health England, and Diabetes UK.

Deprivation is connected with obesity, inactivity, an unhealthy diet, smoking, and poor blood pressure control. All of these characteristics are associated with an increased chance of getting diabetes or experiencing substantial complications in individuals who have already been diagnosed.

Diabetic UK is a patient, healthcare professional, and research organisation based in the United Kingdom that has been dubbed “one of the UK’s top diabetic charities.” The organisation works to enhance diabetes care and treatment (Clive Petry.,2014).

Services:- Diabetes UK funds research into the origins, treatment, and consequences of diabetes in the United Kingdom. The organisation made its first research grant in 1936, which resulted in a critical discovery about how the liver manufactures glucose. The organisation funds “project funding, laboratory equipment purchases, and research-training opportunities ranging from PhD studentships to research fellowships.” [A more trustworthy source is necessary] They sponsor diabetes research in all fields, and substantial advances have been made in both Type 1 therapy and Type 2 prevention and remission. They continue to spend on research, hoping to discover a cure one day (Diabetes research 2019).

Campaigns: – Diabetes UK is at the forefront of the diabetes battle. They’ve run campaigns like the 4Ts to raise awareness of the symptoms of Type 1 diabetes, made sure children get the care they need in schools with their Make the Grade campaign, fought for equality of care and treatment across the UK with their Flash campaign, and are working to make the healthy choice the easy choice with their food labelling campaign, all with the help of their supporters (Diabetes UK 2019).

Groups and events: – Diabetes UK’s first local volunteer organisation was created in 1939. In the United Kingdom, there are now 330 organisations. The Council of Healthcare Professionals and the Council for People Living with Diabetes also work together (Diabetes Uk 2019). The organisation hosts conferences for people with diabetes, volunteers, and medical professionals (John Keeler., 2004).

Publications: – Diabetes UK provides a variety of educational pamphlets and booklets to help improve diabetes awareness and provide support and knowledge to aid in the prevention and control of all forms of diabetes. These include “Balance” (previously The Diabetic Journal), which was founded in 1935 and changed its name to Balance in 1961, as well as “Diabetes Update.” Diabetes UK publishes Diabetic Medicine, an academic journal, through John Wiley and Sons. Furthermore, the charity has established professional practice guidelines (Trisha Dunning., 2008).

Partnership:- Diabetes UK collaborates with various businesses, trusts, foundations, and philanthropists to finance Type 2 diabetes research and prevention. Diabetes UK announced in 2018 a five-year strategic agreement with long-term partner Tesco, the British Heart Foundation, and Cancer Research UK to address the UK’s most critical health challenges via behavioural change.

Current health Interventions:-  According to recent figures (Diabetes UK Trust 2019), the organisation is planning a wide range of health policies that will aid in the cure and prevention of diabetes both locally and throughout the United Kingdom. Currently, it offers a variety of courses to educate patients on the disease, lifestyle changes, drugs, and diabetic-related health issues. The diabetic trust UK also runs numerous health camps in collaboration with Imperial College London, allowing patients to test their blood sugar levels for free and receive free drugs. As part of the diabetic UK trust, fully funded research fellowships are provided to study the safety and efficacy of novel diabetic compounds. The diabetic UK trust also produces brochures to educate diabetic patients aware of the dangers of diabetes. In the North Yorkshire region, their current medicines and illness condition Telephone help is also offered for diabetes patients in some distant parts of North Yorkshire to book appointments and clarify issues.

Success rate:- According to current figures (given by the Diabetes UK Trust 2020), the healthy living programme resulted in a 7% decrease in the frequency of new Type 2 diabetes diagnoses in North Yorkshire between 2018 and 2019, protecting almost 18,000 people from the illness’s disastrous consequences.


Evaluation of health policy: – Evaluation is critical because it assists in demonstrating the value of a particular intervention, program, direction, or approach. If we invest our time and resources into making the world a better place or in the lives of other people, we should be happy with the knowledge that our efforts are making a difference and are well worth the investment. On the other hand, evaluation is more than simply a simple matter of contrasting costs and advantages. Depending on the kind of review being conducted and the project’s significance to the various partners, it may also assist us in answering more complex issues ( Nutbeam D et al.,2006).

The proposition of new plan: – The Diabetes UK Trust is in charge of the South Tees Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, which helps treat and prevent diabetes. The Middleborough City Council has provided the South Tees Hospital NHS Foundation Trust with intervention programs. This is done to further improve the overall health of the surrounding environment. The local government created a local improvement plan, a history of the progress plan, a recommendation map, additional planning documents, and an annual notice report as part of the intervention. Also, the intervention plan is effective for a wide variety of purposes, such as raising people’s awareness of diabetes, which in turn makes it easier for them to avoid developing the condition; providing retroviral patients with free popular screenings and medications; facilitating meetings that improve patients’ mental health; improving the quality of life in the town; organising significant events that promote people’s health and wellbeing; preventing the environment from becoming unstable; developing leaders, and fostering progressive noticing. In addition, the issues discussed earlier have been organised into the following three sections: The overarching concepts and how crucial they are to the Mayor’s Vision, the fundamental building and the game plans. (Middleborough Council, 2018).

Interventions of the new proposed plan:-Wellbeing education are characterised by the World Health Organization (WHO) as “the individual qualities and social assets fundamental for individuals and networks to get to, assess, evaluate, and use data and administrations to settle on wellbeing choices.”

Free Diabetic screenings:-This permits a local area or a person to look at their diabetic status free of charge to invigorate early revelation and, accordingly, the commencement of early precaution hyperglycemic drugs. To diminish financial imbalances, all diabetic cases, both present and recently analysed, will get free medications.

Physical help meetings:- Behavioral treatment meetings will be coordinated to offer physical activity, which reduces the risk of obesity and coronary artery diseases and profound help.

Cooperation:- The Tees Valley Collaborative was framed by the boards of Middleborough, Redcar and Cleveland, and Darlington, as well as NHS South Tees and NHS Darlington as Clinical Commissioning Groups, with the backing of the  Diabetes UK Trust, to screen the requirements of diabetic patients to accomplish the objectives set in the fix and counteraction of diabetes (Tees valley collaboration,2013).

Objectives of collaboration:-As per (Tees Valley Collaboration, 2013), the goals are to permit people to pick and control how they deal with their wellbeing and social consideration prerequisites; and to make the framework more proficient by incorporating care channels across wellbeing and social consideration. Strategies for estimating wellbeing and social concern are turning out to be more normalised, decreasing inefficient duplication, postponements, and hand-offs while improving the data stream across associations. It takes into consideration the authorising of joint administrations to satisfy indicated assumptions and quality prerequisites; and Allows accomplice associations to deal with projected request floods while ensuring an incentive for cash.

Staffing: – In addition to the Tees Valley collaboration team, additional personnel such as community health volunteers, pharmacists, laboratory technicians, pharmacists, and nurses should be hired to ensure that the proposed plan’s theme achieves the intended positive effects.

Resource allocation: – Local resource allocation is not always based on need (but on statutory functions). Budgets are created and maintained in the context of local priorities and goals. Local governments consider public health expenditures part of the overall budget planning process. Budgets for service lines and programmes are determined at the individual manager level. Several Prioritisation Tools are available to assist in resource allocation (Nhs England 2019). Every year, the Department of Health in England allocates revenue (day-to-day spending) and capital (spending on buildings and equipment) resources for health services. In local governments, a local grant is used to fund public health. The remainder of local government duties is funded by the Department of Communities and Local Government. National organisations that govern resource allocation include the Resource Allocation Working Party (RAWP) and the Advisory Committee on Resource Allocation (ACRA.)

Advocate for change/initiative progress:- In an association, a change advocate is somebody who contends for and advances change and champions their endeavours to get it going. Change specialists might be found at many levels of a business. It might create the impression that a cutting-edge worker who upholds the arranged change is addressing staff during their mid-day break, convincing them of the advantages of the move.

Interaction of execution:- An execution plan, or technique plan, depicts the assignments a group should embrace to achieve a shared objective or target. This technique, approach, and activity plan will cover all regions of the task, from degree to spending plan and everything in the middle.

Potential results include:- A result strategy is worried about the administration of government switches like spending, regulation, and execution processes to accomplish specific objectives. These discoveries are utilised to survey the strategy’s viability. The more significant part of endeavours targeting lightening disparity and neediness fall under this class. Since it contains the essential assets, the extended results for this translational methodology are supposed to be compelling. Patients’ lives with diabetes might be broadened all the more effectively if the previously mentioned treatments are done, and subsequent patient meet-ups about drugs will probably have a precise response. The comprehension of sickness examples will likewise change, which will be fundamental for avoidance.

Future evaluation:-Commissioning:-NHS England is answerable for direct appointing administrations not covered by clinical dispatching gatherings, like essential consideration, general wellbeing, law enforcement, military and veteran wellbeing, and specific administrations. Besides, some CCGs have been appointed finished command over actual clinical review, dispatching and contracting the executives.NHS England characterises posting as “the most common way of arranging, getting, and checking wellbeing and care benefits.” The objective is to create the best possible overall results for the local area concerning people. Subsequently, conveying the proper outcomes at the correct cost is essential to fruitful dispatching. Assistance for examining prerequisites and arranging should be consolidated in a yearly cycle technique—buying (procuring) administrations, Quality control and assessment.

Per (the NHS adjusting authorising board 2016), dispatching ought to be explicitly done of the numerous money-related parts that cause success ruin. The essential objective or significant focal point of charging ought to be to work on the norm of care for present diabetic patients on cutting-edge prescriptions. Current patients ought to be firmly checked by clinical consideration suppliers since they might have unfavourable impacts from hyperglycemic drugs and other diabetes-related difficulties. To accomplish the primary outcomes with the endorsing or bought associations, the dismissed gathering of people chosen to act as an illustration for significant assessment should be investigated at both general society and individual levels. Picking clinical thought volunteers at the correct cost may be necessary for following existing patients’ way of life changes. Since the Diabetes Uk Trust offers free diabetes tests and medicines to the population, getting vast amounts of retroviral testing units and retroviral drugs at a sensible expense might be profitable. In this case, the dispatching associations should set cash to the side to guarantee that the point is met.




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