Hallucinogens are the first category of “all-arounders.” LSD is an example of a hallucinogen. It boosts glutamate release and thereby excitement in the cerebral cortex, particularly in layers IV, and V. Users of hallucinogens may feel out of control or disconnected from their bodies and surroundings. Cannabis is the second group under “all arounders”. Marijuana is an example of cannabis. Marijuana affects the user’s perceptions and mood by acting on the CB1 receptor, causing memory and learning problems and impaired judgment. The main effect of marijuana is a pleasant euphoria and a sense of relaxation.
Inhalants are also classified as “all-arounders.” Cocaine is a good example of an inhalant. Cocaine inhibits dopamine from being taken from the synapse by binding to the dopamine transporter. Dopamine builds up at the synapse, amplifying the signal sent to the receiving neurons. Indoles in the next “all-arounder” on the list. Psilocybe is an Indoles example. Indole derivatives exhibit anti-lung cancer properties through the induction of apoptosis, microtubule inhibition, protein kinase inhibition, histone deacetylase inhibition, and DNA topoisomerase inhibition. MDMA is also frequently referred to as an “all-arounder.” Molly is an example of MDMA. Molly acts as an indirect serotonergic agonist, causing more serotonin to be released into the synapses. MDMA’s major effects are psychedelic and stimulating in nature.
The Peyote in Southern America is an example of how hallucinogens are employed in religious rites. When a special event necessitates spiritual assistance, the ceremony is performed. People in these cultures generate hallucinations by ingesting plants that naturally produce hallucinogenic compounds, such as peyote and various species of mushrooms. To make a direct connection with a deity, hallucinogenic substances such as entheogens such as peyote or mushrooms were employed (Hauxley, 2019).
LSD, or lysergic acid diethylamide, was first employed in the 1950s to assess behavioural and personality changes and psychiatric symptom remission in a variety of diseases. “Positive findings were reported despite the design heterogeneity of clinical trials, indicating the therapeutic potential of LSD to alleviate mental symptomatology, primarily in alcoholism” (Fuentes et al., 2020). Anxiety, sadness, psychosomatic disorders, and addiction were all treated with LSD. Because most of these experiments were not conducted according to current standards, LSD research in psychotherapy was disallowed.
PCP was first widely accepted as an anaesthetic by the medical profession since it could give excellent anaesthesia without causing harm to the heart and lungs. The drug’s usage in humans was halted due to negative side effects such as post-operative psychosis, acute anxiety, and dysphoria (feeling of unease or general dissatisfaction).
Premature replies and even stammering are two of the impacts of marijuana smoking on cognitive performance in infrequent smokers. The first-time user is frequently apprehensive about asking inquiries or simply talking. Another effect of first-time marijuana users’ cognitive function is that they are often slow to react or even move. They feel dizzy or detached from reality. The first time user is hyper and overreacting, which has a third influence on cognitive performance. Some are sprinkled throughout the place. They have a habit of laughing a lot.
Dronabinol is used to treat nausea and vomiting induced by chemotherapy in persons who have already tried and failed to cure nausea and vomiting caused by chemotherapy. Some claim that smoking marijuana is preferable to taking THC orally because THC is poorly absorbed and can take hours to absorb when taken orally through edible marijuana. On the other hand, THC enters the bloodstream and immediately travels to the brain when marijuana is smoked or vaporized.
A raised heart rate, racing thoughts, and anxiety are all panic symptoms linked to marijuana. Breathe slowly and deeply, move to a quiet, dark spot, or go for a stroll to eliminate excess energy.
Smoking marijuana is more harmful in certain respects than smoking cigarettes, which cause many more fatalities each year. Additionally, serious public health concerns about kid poisonings caused by ingesting edible marijuana products by accident. Many toxins, irritants, and carcinogens have been found in marijuana smoke as in tobacco smoke.
Fuentes, J. J., Fonseca, F., Elices, M., Farré, M., & Torrens, M. (2020). Therapeutic use of LSD in psychiatry: A systematic review of randomized controlled clinical trials. Frontiers in Psychiatry, 10. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyt.2019.00943
Hallucinogens and spiritual rituals. (n.d.). Encyclopedia.com | Free Online Encyclopedia. https://www.encyclopedia.com/medicine/medical-magazines/hallucinogens-and-spiritual-rituals
Huxley, A. (2019). The Doors of Perception.