Treatment and Management of Diabetes

Different types of diabetes

Diabetes mellitus is considered as a group of metabolic disease that is characterized by an elevated blood glucose level (chronic hyperglycemia). The two most common forms are type 1 and 2. Type 1 is caused by an autoimmune response that activates the destruction of insulin-producing β cells within the pancreas which then becomes a complete insulin deficiency (Arcangelo, Peterson, Wilbur, Reinhold, 2017). For this type of diabetes, the body system cannot produce enough insulin due to factors such as genetic, environmental or any other immune system which leads to destruction for the pancreatic beta cells that are necessary for the production of insulin. Type 2, on the other hand, is characterized by an inadequate response of the peripheral cells to insulin (insulin resistance) and reduced insulin secretion (Pancreatic β cell dysfunction). The body resists the impacts of insulin which is considered as an effective hormone that regulates the sugar movement into the cells or fails to produce enough insulin to control the level of sugar in the body.

Gestational diabetes is considered as a form of diabetes that leads to high blood glucose level at the time of pregnancy (Rother, 2007). Gestational diabetes goes beyond type 1 which begins when the body is unable to use and make insulin it needs. Without sufficient insulin, glucose fails to leave the blood to change into energy. Gestational diabetes has an effect on mothers during late pregnancy after the child’s body has been fully formed. Juvenile diabetes is considered as type 1 diabetes which is mostly diagnosed in young adults and children whose bodies have failed to make insulin. It is all about the lack of hormone insulin where the body lacks to produce sufficient insulin that can handle glucose in the body.

Drug administration

Metformin is defined as a biguanide drug that improves the sensitivity of the body cells to insulin (Boulé et al., 2011) It is also considered important for lowering the amount of glucose that has been produced by the liver. Today this type of drug is the first drug that is prescribed for type 2 diabetes.  Metformin is said to be more effective when taken together with other drugs that lower glucose. At first, metformin is taken 500mg once in a day during the evening meal. Then the doctor should then increase the dose depending on the blood sugar level to enable controlling the sugar levels. It is important to ensure that the drug is taken with a meal in the evening that is a healthy diet with a variety of healthy foods. Medication is supported by regular physical exercise and healthy eating due to possible effects that include weight gain and low blood sugar.

Short-term and long-term effects of diabetes

In diabetes, the short-term effects are the symptoms which are what happens to the body during the first stages. This is when the blood glucose level is out of the normal level. These include tiredness, increased thirst, excessive need to urinate, extreme hunger, blurred vision, weakness, nervousness and feeling confusion (Arcangelo, Peterson, Wilbur, Reinhold, 2017).

The most common long-term effects of diabetes are related to damage of small and large blood vessels. The complications that are related to diabetes include damage of small and large blood vessels which can result in stroke and heart attack and problems with eyes, kidneys, nerves, and feet. There are other body parts that are affected such as the digestive system, sexual organs, the skin, gums, teeth, and the immune system.

Diabetes eye problem includes retinopathy whereby the blood vessels get damaged and the vision is eventually affected, macular oedema where the macula which is a part of the retina that helps seeing things clearly gets damaged, cataracts where the lens of the eye turns cloudy. Due to the changes in the small blood vessels, diabetes people may be at risk of getting kidney disease.

Effects of drug treatments

Many patients with diabetes need drugs to lower the levels of blood glucose, prevent complications and relieve symptoms. Doctors are careful while treating diabetes since the drugs and insulin given through mouth can lead to a very low level of blood glucose. Medication for diabetes is generally done to manage and control the blood sugar levels.


Arcangelo,  V. P., Peterson, A. M., Wilbur, V., & Reinhold, J. A. (Eds.).  (2017). Pharmacotherapeutics for advanced practice: A practical approach (4th ed.). Ambler, PA: Lippincott Williams  & Wilkins.

Boulé, N. G., Robert, C., Bell, G. J., Johnson, S. T., Bell, R. C., Lewanczuk, R. Z., … & Brocks, D. R. (2011). Metformin and exercise in type 2 diabetes: examining treatment modality interactions. Diabetes care, DC_102207.

Rother, K. I. (2007). Diabetes treatment—bridging the divide. The New England journal of medicine356(15), 1499.

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