Media and Advanced Technology
Media is a common term widely used worldwide. As defined by Tenopir and King (2000), media is a group of communication outlet that is used to store and deliver ranging information as well as data. Media communication is associated with varying businesses in mass media including publishing, print and press media, broadcasting, cinema, and advertisements among other fields in radios and televisions. As used in this study, the term media will be used about internet use, businesses and power centres, government as well as business and media owners.
How Media Ownership Confers Media Control
Media ownership profoundly confers with media control. As defined by Ganiyu and Akinreti (2011), Media ownership includes individuals, groups of individuals, government among other corporations that own print(s) or Broadcast media(s). It involves ownership of the medium of communication. Generally, media ownership is mainly used to achieve various political and economic goals. For instance, as shown by Kanyiwedo (2013), many newspapers mediums are owned by politicians including Nation and Tribune newspapers are owned by two politicians, Tinubu and Awolowo respectively. Notably, most of the social media including Facebook, Twitter, Skype, blog, and YouTube are the ones profoundly affected by the issue of media ownership.
On the other hand, media control includes various checks, controls, or limits that are posted to the media (Hafez, 2001). Raufu (2003) further explained that these controls are based on ranging restrictions on what to publish and what not to, most demanded publications, the influence of proprietors, and views from regulatory bodies. Here, the media controls significantly affect what various editors intend to publish and what not to give to the public. Notably, there are three forms of media controls including the government, advertiser, and private media proprietors’ control. Government controls set various restrictions on media to be published through establishing laws through licensing, regulating, monitoring and conduction of researches on what to be published by editors (Chomsky, 2003). Advertiser’s control as explained by Chomsky (2010) as a condition on which the media organizations control news which will be considered favourable by introducing a cost which is aimed at sustaining their medium. Private media control includes a situation where proprietors enforce restrictions to their editors and separate staffs.
From the description provided above, media ownership highly confers media control. To start with, political party ownership media ownership ensures that what is to be broadcasted is in support of that political party (kanyiwedo, 2013). They ensure that the media becomes an agent of propaganda, which by all means, will provide that all publishes that are against them are not published (Hafez, 2001). Private companies will only publish articles that will be valuable to their institution and limit those that will be in support of their competitors. Therefore, it means that the type of media owners influences and controls what to be published.
Moreover, media owners may pose various charges to the incoming publications and highly advertise on items that have paid at a remarkable cost (Ganiyu and Akinreti, 2011). Here, owners’ controls what to be advertised or not through the use of an advertisement cost to publications. The owners mainly use the costs to sustain their medium. This control system is most common in the Advertisers’ Control method (Kanyiwedo, 2013).
Major Trends Currently Reshaping the Media and Cultural Industries and Their Consequences
Recently, digital transformation has been witnessed on media industry including newspaper app on tablets to replace buying a regular newspaper, streamlining television series on smart television replacing renting a Digital Versatile Disc (DVD), and customized food recipes on phone from buying cookbooks (James, 2018). As it will be noted in this study, various demographic, consumer, and technological trends currently witnessed profoundly reshape the media and cultural industries.
Demographic is the first significant trend that has reshaped media and cultural industry. As represented by World Economic Forum (2018), as the world’s middle-class individuals grow, demand for new and more developed media services is needed. For instance, with changing human demographics, improved media services that are a convenience, educational, memorable experiences, premium, instant access, and online are demanded. Mostly, this change is essential due to the emergence of millennials and busy working individuals who need fast and less challenging media services (World Economic Forum, 2018).
New consumer behaviours and expectations is another important trend leading to a transformation in the media field. As portrayed by James (2018), recent generations tend to consume media services from all over the world which creates a demand for the development of better means of providing these services. Further, increased use of social media leads to various complications such as hacking as well as internet viruses. These challenges create a need or desire to have more advanced media services with minimal hacks, secure, private, trustworthy, and with less or no viruses for instance through ad-blocking software (World Economic Forum, 2018). Therefore, new consumer behaviours and expectations aids in reshaping the media industry.
Lastly, the technological tread is another drive to the improved media industry. As shown in “Five Technology Trends You Need to Know to Work in Any Industry” (2018), as people continually use mobile and internet-based services, more advanced options arise due to updated technological trends. That is, technological advancement enables the ability to access contents from any place at any time, give room for new business startups, and other smart technological services that will allow the media industry to have a vast range opportunity to offer improved services (World Economic Forum, 2018).
Notably, advanced/reshaped media industry due to various trends like technological improvement comes with multiple consequences. These resolutions bring positive impacts to the media industry. For instance, advanced eradicates the time and resources wasted while going to a movie shop to get or watch a particular movie. Remarkably, reshaped media industry gives room for streamlining films and series from any place at any time. This revolution means that there will be no limits on scheduled TV channels, no multimedia time, device, or place restrictions.
Additionally, reshaped media industry will help peoples to earn a living on an online basis. It means that people will get new employment as media technology will advance (Fotis, Buhalis, and Rossides, (2011). As elaborated by Vrana (2011), digital transformation on media sector as there will emerge a demand for skilled digitalised roles such as sales of more improved programs like secure, faster, safe, and trustworthy online sales. Moreover, the new enhanced media industry will help peoples not to delete contents from their fridges as there will be new ways to save their data. For instance, there will be online stores such as offline views, Google Drive, OneDrive, iCloud, and SpiderOak (Fun, Samsudin, and Zaaba, 2017).
‘Internet of Things’ and How They Change the Organization of the Communications System
Internet things remarkably influence organizational communication system. As defined by Burgess (2018), Internet of Things (IoT) involves all items connected to the internet including simple and cheap sensors to smartphones and wearables, electronics, actuators and software which are connected. That is, these connections are usually ‘talk’ or facilitate, gathering of information, analyzing it, and sharing of data from one device to the other. Connected. As the advancement of the media industry is witnessed, internet connectivity is extended from conventional devices including computers, laptops, smartphones, and tablets to several traditional non-internet-enabled devices. As explained by World Economic Forum (2018), the birth of the internet of things is witnessed through the increased use of second sensors, connected devices, and cloud computing which offers media industry seamless and penalized job opportunities as showed below.
As evidenced in many organizations, the IoT brings valuable change to improved organization communication systems. As developed by Burns (2017), the IoT is highly applicable in ranging fields including consumer, industrial, commercial, and infrastructure spaces. For instance, the IoT has led to newly developed methods of electronic communication including improved interaction among employees, updated social networking websites and video conferences, and smart home. Here, the IoT facilitate better workplace collaboration through remote workers where organizations can create a real presence for employees anywhere worldwide. An excellent example as demonstrated by Burns (2017) is where video conferences are held will be possible from any part of organization base apart from the commonly used fixed devices including smartphones and computers. Most of the launched IoT by google include smart home devices, Google Duo, self-driving cars, quick lock, Nest learning thermostat, and voice assistance among other devices (Singh, 2018).
How the organization of the advertising industry and the forms of advertising changing in response to the rise of digital technologies
Incredibly, the advertisement industry has experienced a massive transformation due to the emergence of new digital technology. Compared to the previous advertising industry, it is clear that easy, timely, cheap, efficient, and convenient advertisements have emerged in the market. As demonstrated by World Economic Forum (2018), advanced advertisement industry has been able to accommodate people’s feeling about an ordinal advertisement. For instance, Instagram has managed to effectively advertise organization’s products and services to more than 800 million users on a monthly bases worldwide (Torrance, 2017).
Moreover, the organization of advertisement have changed as programmatic advertisement no longer use the format of a silo or distinct media channels. Instead, a shift in better publications has been achieved by connecting marketing and advertising using modern technology. The new system is efficient, transparent, safe, more Intelligent, have room for agencies, and more measurable as compared to earlier decades (James, 2018). Also, recent advertisements come with new features which makes the whole thing to be exciting due to creativity in arts that is available in today’s publications. Good examples of these as portrayed by Torrance (2017), recent adverts are based on quick designed thinking, ease of access from any place, and create room and opportunity for upcoming young peoples with ranging talents.
Similarly, forms of advertisements are changing as technology advances. New procedures have displaced the regular types of ads including TV, radio, public service, outdoor, Scatter-gun, and printed advertisements. Conversely, as discussed by Anthony (2012), the new forms of advertisement take the form of Xbox Live or Steam, streaming an advertisement via UltraViolet, pre-roll ads, and Internet radios including Rdio. In the coming future, it is expected that a new technology interacting brain with technology will emerge for instance through brain-computer interfaces. Here, advertisers will be possible to read mind and then display timely and perfect ads matching individuals likes (Anthony, 2012).
‘The less regulation, the better.’
Increased regulations are a significant drawback in all media industries. The various regulation influence which advertisement to be published and which not to publish. As defined by Hafez (2001), media regulation is the introduction o various controls and checks on the media published or advertised. These media regulations are mainly from the government, advertisers, as well as private media proprietors. The controls might be in the form of imposed costs, licenses, monitoring, and the advertisement effects (Chomsky, 2003) since these regulations come with various limitations to both advertisers as well as the media owners, the less the controls, the better the advertisement.
To start with, media control limits the media to be published. These controls in most cases bloc most variable information from auditors (Raufu, 2003). If these media are restricted due to political, individual company’s views, or government restriction, it makes the media industry to be biased. Therefore, the only media that will be accepted will only act as a media of spreading propaganda that is not important to consumers (Chomsky, 2003). This finally creates inequality in the media industry as only media from certain parties or individuals will be considered to be worth.
Further, controlled media only act as a lie since all the posted press will be done to support a particular party thus it will serve as a corrupt system. The information that will be spreading keep individuals from accessing the real truth; for instance, if the truth will display the corrupted individuals or act as a competitor in any field (Kanyiwedo, 2013). These individuals will argue that the fact is not fit for the general public. Moreover, some cost regulation may make needy individuals and editors unable to publish their articles (Chomsky, 2010). Here, only the media from the bigger whales will be posted as they will be capable of paying any amount to ensure that their media will be profoundly advertised.
Media censorship violates the freedom of expression. If the public is restricted from posting the media of their choice, it diminishes their freedom of expression (Hafez, 2001). It implies that the voice of the people will have no place which will not be in adhere with the constitutional rights and freedoms. Increased media controls further precede to banning of the broadcast of specific news which means that the citizens will be uninformed (Kanyiwedo, 2013).
Role of Public Service Broadcasting (PSB) in the Age of Multi-Channel Television (AMC) and the Internet
PSB is an essential tool in the age of AMC Television as well as on the internet. Although the new technology has brought various changes in the field of the media industry, public service broadcasting is still a reoccurring activity in the age of multichannel TV and internet (Informitv.com, 2015). As defined by Scannell (2005), public service broadcasting is the publishing intended to meet the benefits of the general public instead of concentrating on commercial interests. On the other hand, the age of Multi-channel Televisions indicates present condition of the media industry in broadcasting its news. Notably, the public service broadcasting is still essential as indicated below.
Firstly, there is intense competition urge for traditional dances and broadcast from audiences with strong views for Public Service Broadcasting. In a research done by Tenopir, King, Edwards and Wu, (2009), the transition from analogue to digital broadcasting received various restrictions as some peoples had higher preferences for Public Service Broadcasting televisions and radios. However, the digital public services are still vital on the internet since, after transformation, there immersed new internet ways of watching televisions (Informitv.com, 2015). For instance, people can streamline online TV stations through their phones via the internet. Statistics show that more than 50% of young people watch TV on online platforms (James, 2018)
Moreover, public services broadcasters still have played a significant role in the internet age. As showed by Moriarty et al. (2014), public services broadcasters are well adapted as they engage the viewers in various innovative ways. For instance, this type of broadcaster has access to spectrum or other additional electronic changes from television licensing fees which makes it advantageous even in the changing technologies (Raufu, 2003).
How digital technologies increasing the power of audiences and users or confirming the power of established power centres
Advanced technology has played an essential role in improving power of audience and users on power centres. As technology advances continue to be witnessed in the media industry, various changes in modes and forms of sharing media (James, 2018). These have created a favourable environment for different communication and information efficiency within the power centres. Consequently, these technological changes have changed the ways upon which the businesses operate compared with the past decades. Notably, the discussion below explains how digital technologies have increased the audience and user in power centres.
The first method upon which the power is increased by advanced technology is through the mobile solution. The mobile solution increases user and audience power by handling businesses in remote areas on a specific point using smart devices and tablets (Singh, 2018). If these intelligent devices can be loaded with the correct software, then the audience and users are connected which increases sales. For instance, the millennials (generation Y) use their smart devices to make various transactions including buying, selling, shopping, locating businesses, and sharing the retail experience with their fellows (Fromm, and Garton, 2013). The information can be shared using Facebook, emails, Twitter, and online business platforms among others. With such benefits, the power of audiences and users is increased.
Moreover, improved technology lead to extreme customer segmentation. Here, due to increased ideas and information on advanced technology, it becomes easy to understand the customers that a power centre is looking for (Modus Engagement, 2018). For instance, some technologies such as google account can help a business person to know where the visitors come from, the type of browser they are using, how they found your website, what they do on the website, the time spent on it, and the time they intend to leave the webpage.
Advanced technology leads to a decrease in cost/increase functionality. With the increased use of matching and interaction between the hardware and the software solutions for the business, the whole power centre processes become easy to use, convenient, and affordable (Modus Engagement, 2018). When information on how to manage these businesses are available online, the costs involved in hiring experts to help in making business decisions are saved. Additionally, when the business transactions are done on online bases, the costs and time that would have been used will increase the functionality of the whole process.
Digital technologies increase the power of established power-centres through connectivity and cloud computing. As shown by Modus Engagement (2018), technology improves the ease at which ranging users or audiences stay in touch throughout the business processes. For instance, technology enables power centre owners to keep in touch with the co-workers working at their businesses via texts, video charts, CCTV systems, and calls through their smart devices (Torrance, 2017). This increased telecommunication creates a hyper-real web which gives real-time information about the business being monitored. Further, the information is then stored in an online platform for instance cloud computing.
The Internet as a Public Sphere
The question of whether the internet has become a public sphere has become a significant question in the media. As defined by Papacharissi (2002), a public sphere is an area where societal individuals meet to make discussion on various community problems freely and are influenced by politics. For instance, people in a society may meet to discuss how to eliminate poverty. Although not everybody has access to internet connections or skills to use it, the internet has become a public sphere as explained below.
The Internet has become a public sphere as people use the internet to search for almost every aspect of life. As shown by Matačinskaitė (2011), internet plays a vital role in exploring an individual’s daily routine. For instance, people may search about how to buy, sell, how to do things, how to relate, searching for medication etc. Additionally, people apply different forms of media more frequently and regularly; thus, the internet has become part of peoples. Furthermore, peoples are now integrating on press more than they are socializing with peoples (Papacharissi, 2002). They use media to be their utmost means of socializing rather than physically interacting with their nearing fellows.
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